Discovery of 5-substituted pyrrolo[2,3- d ]pyrimidine antifolates as dual-acting inhibitors of glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase in de novo purine nucleotide biosynthesis: Implications of inhibiting 5-aminoimidazole-4- carboxamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase to AMPK activation and antitumor activity

Shermaine Mitchell-Ryan, Yiqiang Wang, Sudhir Raghavan, Manasa Punaha Ravindra, Eric Hales, Steven Orr, Christina Cherian, Zhanjun Hou, Larry H. Matherly, Aleem Gangjee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

22 Scopus citations

Abstract

We synthesized 5-substituted pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine antifolates (compounds 5-10) with one-to-six bridge carbons and a benozyl ring in the side chain as antitumor agents. Compound 8 with a 4-carbon bridge was the most active analogue and potently inhibited proliferation of folate receptor (FR) α-expressing Chinese hamster ovary and KB human tumor cells. Growth inhibition was reversed completely or in part by excess folic acid, indicating that FRα is involved in cellular uptake, and resulted in S-phase accumulation and apoptosis. Antiproliferative effects of compound 8 toward KB cells were protected by excess adenosine but not thymidine, establishing de novo purine nucleotide biosynthesis as the targeted pathway. However, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide (AICA) protection was incomplete, suggesting inhibition of both AICA ribonucleotide formyltransferase (AICARFTase) and glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase (GARFTase). Inhibition of GARFTase and AICARFTase by compound 8 was confirmed by cellular metabolic assays and resulted in ATP pool depletion. To our knowledge, this is the first example of an antifolate that acts as a dual inhibitor of GARFTase and AICARFTase as its principal mechanism of action.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)10016-10032
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Medicinal Chemistry
Volume56
Issue number24
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 27 2013

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Drug Discovery

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