In this report, exploitation of the unique properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) leads to the achievement of direct electron transfer with the redox active centres of adsorbed oxidoreductase enzymes. Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), the redox active prosthetic group of flavoenzymes that catalyses important biological redox reactions and the flavoenzyme glucose oxidase (GOx), were both found to spontaneously adsorb onto carbon nanotube bundles. Both FAD and GOx were found to spontaneously adsorb to unannealed carbon nanotubes that were cast onto glassy carbon electrodes and to display quasi-reversible one-electron transfer. Similarly, GOx was found to spontaneously adsorb to annealed, single-walled carbon nanotube paper and to display quasi-reversible one-electron transfer. In particular, GOx immobilized in this way was shown, in the presence of glucose, to maintain its substrate-specific enzyme activity. It is believed that the tubular fibrils become positioned within tunnelling distance of the cofactors with little consequence to denaturation. The combination of SWNT with redox active enzymes would appear to offer an excellent and convenient platform for a fundamental understanding of biological redox reactions as well as the development of reagentless biosensors and nanobiosensors.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Materials Science(all)
- Mechanics of Materials
- Mechanical Engineering
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering