Differential origins of neocortical projection and local circuit neurons: role of Dlx genes in neocortical interneuronogenesis

S Anderson, M Mione, K Yun, J L Rubenstein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

290 Scopus citations


Herein we review the evidence that neocortical projection neurons and interneurons are derived from distinct regions within the telencephalon. While neocortical projection neurons are derived from the ventricular zone of the neocortex, neocortical interneurons appear to be derived from the germinal zone of the basal ganglia. These interneurons follow a tangential migratory pathway from the ganglionic eminences to the cortex. Interneurons of the olfactory bulb follow a distinct tangential migration from the basal ganglia. The Dlx homeobox genes, which are essential for basal ganglia differentiation, are also required for the development of neocortical and olfactory bulb interneurons. Furthermore, evidence is presented that retroviral-mediated expression of DLX2 in neocortical cells can induce GABAergic interneuron differentiation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)646-54
Number of pages9
JournalCerebral Cortex
Issue number6
StatePublished - Sep 1999


  • Animals
  • Antisense Elements (Genetics)
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Cell Division
  • Cell Movement
  • Cells, Cultured
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Viral
  • Homeodomain Proteins
  • Interneurons
  • Mice
  • Mutagenesis
  • Neocortex
  • Phenotype
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins
  • Retroviridae
  • Retroviridae Infections
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Transcription Factors
  • gamma-Aminobutyric Acid
  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.


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