Different Sources of Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Tissue Regeneration: A Guide to Identifying the Most Favorable One in Orthopedics and Dentistry Applications

Victor J. Costela‐ruiz, Lucía Melguizo‐rodríguez, Chiara Bellotti, Rebeca Illescas‐montes, Deborah Stanco, Carla Renata Arciola, Enrico Lucarelli

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

39 Scopus citations


The success of regenerative medicine in various clinical applications depends on the appropriate selection of the source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Indeed, the source conditions, the quality and quantity of MSCs, have an influence on the growth factors, cytokines, extracellular vesicles, and secrete bioactive factors of the regenerative milieu, thus influencing the clinical result. Thus, optimal source selection should harmonize this complex setting and ensure a well‐personalized and effective treatment. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be obtained from several sources, including bone marrow and adipose tissue, already used in orthopedic regenerative applications. In this sense, for bone, dental, and oral injuries, MSCs could provide an innovative and effective therapy. The present review aims to compare the properties (proliferation, migration, clonogenicity, angiogenic capacity, differentiation potential, and secretome) of MSCs derived from bone marrow, adipose tissue, and dental tissue to enable clinicians to select the best source of MSCs for their clinical application in bone and oral tissue regeneration to delineate new translational perspectives. A review of the literature was conducted using the search engines Web of Science, Pubmed, Scopus, and Google Scholar. An analysis of different publications showed that all sources compared (bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM‐MSCs), adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells (AT‐MSCs), and dental tissue mesenchymal stem cells (DT‐MSCs) are good options to promote proper migration and angiogenesis, and they turn out to be useful for gingival, dental pulp, bone, and periodontal regeneration. In particular, DT‐MSCs have better proliferation rates and AT and G‐MSC sources showed higher clonogenicity. MSCs from bone marrow, widely used in orthopedic regenerative medicine, are preferable for their differentiation ability. Considering all the properties among sources, BM‐MSCs, AT‐MSCs, and DT‐MSCs present as potential candidates for oral and dental regeneration.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number6356
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Issue number11
StatePublished - Jun 6 2022


  • adipose tissue
  • bone
  • bone marrow
  • dental tissue
  • mesenchymal stem cells
  • orthopedics
  • regenerative medicine
  • tissue engineering
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Dentistry
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism
  • Bone Marrow Cells
  • Orthopedics
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Adipose Tissue

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Catalysis
  • Inorganic Chemistry
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry


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