Diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis in the United States

Yvonne A. Maldonado, Jennifer S. Read, Carrie L. Byington, Elizabeth D. Barnett, H. Dele Davies, Kathryn M. Edwards, Ruth Lynfield, Flor M. Munoz, Dawn Nolt, Ann Christine Nyquist, Mobeen H. Rathore, Mark H. Sawyer, William J. Steinbach, Tina Q. Tan, Theoklis E. Zaoutis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

148 Scopus citations


Congenital toxoplasmosis (CT) is a parasitic disease that can cause significant fetal and neonatal harm. Coordinated efforts by pregnant women, researchers, physicians, and health policy makers regarding potential primary and secondary preventive measures for CT and their implementation may lead to a lower incidence of CT as well as lower morbidity and mortality rates associated with CT. In the United States, the age-adjusted seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii among women of childbearing age (15-44 years) has declined over time (15%, 11%, and 9% in 1988-1994, 1999-2004, and 2009-2010, respectively; among US-born women only, the seroprevalence rates during these time periods were 13%, 8%, and 6%, respectively). Thus, approximately 91% of women of childbearing age in the United States are susceptible to Toxoplasma infection. Should these women become infected during pregnancy and remain undiagnosed and untreated, they could deliver an infant with CT. However, the incidence of acute primary infection is likely very low in the current era and is probably much lower than the 1.1 in 1000 pregnant women originally reported in 1960s.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere20163860
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2017

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health


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