Development of NP-Based Universal Vaccine for Influenza A Viruses

Ekramy E. Sayedahmed, Nelly O. Elshafie, Andrea P. dos Santos, Chinnaswamy Jagannath, Suryaprakash Sambhara, Suresh K. Mittal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The nucleoprotein (NP) is a vital target for the heterosubtypic immunity of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) due to its conservation among influenza virus subtypes. To further enhance the T cell immunity of NP, autophagy-inducing peptide C5 (AIP-C5) from the CFP10 protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was used. Mice were immunized intranasally (i.n.) with human adenoviral vectors, HAd-C5-NP(H7N9) or HAd-NP(H7N9), expressing NP of an H7N9 influenza virus with or without the AIP-C5, respectively. Both vaccines developed similar levels of NP-specific systemic and mucosal antibody titers; however, there was a significantly higher number of NP-specific CD8 T cells secreting interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) in the HAd-C5-NP(H7N9) group than in the HAd-NP(H7N9) group. The HAd-C5-NP(H7N9) vaccine provided better protection following the challenge with A/Puerto Rico/8/1934(H1N1), A/Hong Kong/1/68(H3N2), A/chukkar/MN/14951-7/1998(H5N2), A/goose/Nebraska/17097/2011(H7N9), or A/Hong Kong/1073/1999(H9N2) influenza viruses compared to the HAd-NP(H7N9) group. The autophagy transcriptomic gene analysis of the HAd-C5-NP(H7N9) group revealed the upregulation of some genes involved in the positive regulation of the autophagy process. The results support further exploring the use of NP and AIP-C5 for developing a universal influenza vaccine for pandemic preparedness.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number157
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2 2024


  • adenoviral vector
  • autophagy
  • autophagy-inducing peptide
  • influenza vaccine
  • nucleoprotein
  • universal influenza vaccine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Pharmacology
  • Drug Discovery
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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