Development and validation of an appearance motivation attitudes scale for sun protection

Jay E. Maddock, Colleen A. Redding, Joseph S. Rossi, Martin A. Weinstock

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


A reliable two-factor instrument measuring appearance motivation attitudes for sun protection was developed using a longitudinal sample of beachgoers. At baseline, data on sun protection and appearance motivation attitudes were collected on 2324 individuals. Principal components analyses (PCA) indicated a two-factor solution measuring attitudes toward tan attractiveness and skin protection with only 2 items loading on the skin protection factor. At 12-months, the instrument was revised and shortened but including 3 new skin protection items. Split-half analyses were conducted to further refine and develop the instrument. PCA on half of the sample revealed a two-factor solution, which was confirmed using structural equation modeling on the remaining half. This resulted in a two correlated-factor, 10-item measure. Each factor was summed to create two scales. Both scales were internally consistent and demonstrated good external validity, correlating with sun protection specific Transtheoretical model variables. The tan attractiveness attitudes scale significantly improved prediction of sun protection outcomes over 24 months, over and above TTM variables.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)775-788
Number of pages14
JournalPsychology and Health
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 2005


  • Behavior change
  • Measurement development
  • Skin cancer
  • Sun protection
  • Transtheoretical model

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Psychology
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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