Determining the risk factors and prevalence of osteoporosis using quantitative ultrasonography in Pakistani adult women

M. Fatima, H. Nawaz, M. Kassi, R. Rehman, P. M. Kasi, M. Kassi, A. K. Afghan, S. N. Baloch

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Scopus citations


Introduction: Osteoporosis-related bone fractures are a signifcant public health problem. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of osteoporosis among Pakistani women and identify modifable risk factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in an obstetrics/gynaecology setting during March-April 2007 in Quetta, Pakistan. A total of 334 women older than 20 years of age underwent quantitative ultrasonography and were interviewed to find out the risk factors for osteoporosis. Bone mineral density was assessed by the speed of sound using a quantitative ultrasound device. The sociodemographic characteristics of normal, osteopenic and osteoporotic women were compared using the chi-square test for categorical variables and ANOVA for continuous variables. Binary logistic regression was used to determine the independent predictors of being osteopenic or osteoporotic. Results: 146 (43.7 percent) women were reported to be normal, 145 (43.4 percent) were osteopenic and 43 (12.9 percent) were osteoporotic. The mean age and standard deviation of the participants were 36.7 years +/- 13.0 years, with a body mass index (BMI) of 25.81 (standard deviation 5.10) kg per square metre. In the univariate analysis, factors that were associated with osteoporosis/ osteopenia included age, parity, BMI, smoking (pack years), consumption of calcium-rich food/ week, personal and family history of osteoporosis, education and socioeconomic status (p-value is less than 0.05). Using binary logistic regression with osteoporosis/osteopenia as an outcome compared to normal individuals, BMI, smoking pack years, a family history of osteoporosis/fracture and house ownership were found to be independent predictors of the outcome. Conclusion: The prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia is high, especially among young Pakistani women, and is associated with modifable risk factors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)20-28
Number of pages9
JournalSingapore Medical Journal
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2009


  • Osteoporosis prevalence
  • Osteoporosis risk factors
  • Quantitative ultrasonography
  • Women's health

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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