Determining prostate cancer-specific death through quantification of stromogenic carcinoma area in prostatectomy specimens

Gustavo E. Ayala, Bahar Muezzinoglu, Kai H. Hammerich, Anna Frolov, Hao Liu, Peter T. Scardino, Rile Li, Mohammad Sayeeduddin, Michael M. Ittmann, Dov Kadmon, Brian J. Miles, Thomas M. Wheeler, David R. Rowley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

50 Scopus citations


We previously reported that reactive stroma grading in prostate cancer (PCa) is predictive of biochemical recurrence in prostatectomies and biopsies. In this study, we tested whether quantifying the percentage of reactive stromal grade 3 (RSG 3; stromogenic carcinoma pattern) in the entire tumor is predictive of PCa-specific death. Whole-mount prostatectomies operated by a single surgeon obtained between 1983 and 1998 were reviewed. Reactive stroma was evaluated as described previously, and areas of RSG 3 in the entire tumor were registered as percentages of total tumor. Statistical analysis was performed using Spearman, Kaplan-Meier, and Cox analyses. In all, 872 cases were evaluable. Quantification of RSG 3 percentage was an independent predictor of biochemical recurrence, analyzed as a continuous or grouped variable. Patients with higher RSG 3 percentages (larger tumor areas with RSG 3) had a significantly decreased biochemical recurrence-free survival than those with a lower RSG 3 percentage, even within the Gleason score 7 subset of patients. A nomogram introduced this new variable to the model. Furthermore, quantification of RSG 3 percentage was significantly predictive of PCa-specific death. Quantification of the RSG 3 (stromogenic carcinoma) area in PCa provides additional novel information on prognosis. These data substantiate the concept that the tumor microenvironment holds significant predictive information, as well as biological significance.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)79-87
Number of pages9
JournalAmerican Journal of Pathology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2011

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine


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