Background. Retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP) during profound hypothermic circulatory arrest has been used as an adjunct for cerebral protection for repairs of the ascending and transverse aortic arch. Transcranial Doppler ultrasound has been used to monitor cerebral blood flow during RCP with varying success. The purpose of this study was to characterize cerebral blood flow dynamics during RCP using a new mode of monitoring known as transcranial power motion-mode (M-mode) Doppler ultrasound. Methods. Data on pump-flow characteristics and patient outcomes were collected prospectively for patients undergoing ascending and transverse aortic arch repair. Retrograde cerebral perfusion during profound hypothermic circulatory arrest was used for all operations. Intraoperative cerebral blood flow dynamics were monitored and recorded using transcranial power M-mode Doppler ultrasound. Results. Between August 2001 and March 2002, we used transcranial power M-mode Doppler ultrasound monitoring for 40 ascending and transverse aortic arch repairs during RCP. Mean RCP time was 32.2 ± 13.8 minutes. Mean RCP pump flow and RCP peak pressure for identification of cerebral blood flow were 0.66 ± 0.11 L/min and 31.8 ± 9.7 mm Hg, respectively. Retrograde cerebral blood flow during RCP was detected in 97.5% of cases (39 of 40 patients) with a mean transcranial power M-mode Doppler ultrasound flow velocity of 15.5 ± 12.3 cm/s. In the study group, 30-day mortality was 10.0% (4 of 40 patients). The incidence of stroke was 7.6% (3 of 40 patients); the incidence of temporary neurologic deficit was 35.0% (14 of 40 patients). Conclusions. Transcranial power M-mode Doppler ultrasound consistently demonstrated retrograde middle cerebral artery blood flow during RCP. Transcranial power M-mode Doppler ultrasound can provide optimal RCP with individualized settings of pump flow.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine