Detection of obstructive sleep apnea using Belun Sleep Platform wearable with neural network-based algorithm and its combined use with STOP-Bang questionnaire

Eric Yeh, Eileen Wong, Chih Wei Tsai, Wenbo Gu, Pai Lien Chen, Lydia Leung, I. Chen Wu, Kingman P. Strohl, Rodney J. Folz, Wail Yar, Ambrose A. Chiang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Many wearables allow physiological data acquisition in sleep and enable clinicians to assess sleep outside of sleep labs. Belun Sleep Platform (BSP) is a novel neural network-based home sleep apnea testing system utilizing a wearable ring device to detect obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The objective of the study is to assess the performance of BSP for the evaluation of OSA. Subjects who take heart rate-affecting medications and those with non-arrhythmic comorbidities were included in this cohort. Polysomnography (PSG) studies were performed simultaneously with the Belun Ring in individuals who were referred to the sleep lab for an overnight sleep study. The sleep studies were manually scored using the American Academy of Sleep Medicine Scoring Manual (version 2.4) with 4% desaturation hypopnea criteria. A total of 78 subjects were recruited. Of these, 45% had AHI < 5; 18% had AHI 5–15; 19% had AHI 15–30; 18% had AHI ≥ 30. The Belun apnea-hypopnea index (bAHI) correlated well with the PSG-AHI (r = 0.888, P < 0.001). The Belun total sleep time (bTST) and PSG-TST had a high correlation coefficient (r = 0.967, P < 0.001). The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity in categorizing AHI ≥ 15 were 0.808 [95% CI, 0.703–0.888], 0.931 [95% CI, 0.772–0.992], and 0.735 [95% CI, 0.589–0.850], respectively. The use of beta-blocker/calcium-receptor antagonist and the presence of comorbidities did not negatively affect the sensitivity and specificity of BSP in predicting OSA. A diagnostic algorithm combining STOP-Bang cutoff of 5 and bAHI cutoff of 15 events/h demonstrated an accuracy, sensitivity, specificity of 0.938 [95% CI, 0.828–0.987], 0.944 [95% CI, 0.727–0.999], and 0.933 [95% CI, 0.779–0.992], respectively, for the diagnosis of moderate to severe OSA. BSP is a promising testing tool for OSA assessment and can potentially be incorporated into clinical practices for the identification of OSA.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere0258040
Pages (from-to)e0258040
JournalPLoS ONE
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2021


  • Adult
  • Cohort Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Random Allocation
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnosis
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Wearable Electronic Devices

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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