Detection of cocaine and its metabolites in amniotic fluid and umbilical cord tissue

Ruth E. Winecker, Bruce A. Goldberger, Ian Tebbett, Marylou Behnke, Fonda Davis Eyler, Michael Conlon, Kathy Wobie, Janet Karlix, Roger L. Bertholf

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

40 Scopus citations

Abstract

The increased use of cocaine by women of child-bearing age has left many health care scientists searching for improved methods of detecting prenatal cocaine exposure. To that end, a study of the determination of cocaine and its metabolites in amniotic fluid and umbilical cord tissue was undertaken. Amniotic fluid (n = 32) and umbilical cord tissue (n = 70) specimens were collected from pregnant subjects admitted to labor and delivery at Shands Hospital at the University of Florida (Gainesville, FL). Subjects were interviewed regarding drug use during each trimester. Subjects reporting cocaine use were designated as target subjects, and those denying use were control subjects. The specimens were subjected to solid-phase extraction and analyzed for cocaine and its metabolites by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Cocaine analyses (predominantly benzoylecgonine) were detected in 28.1 and 18.5% of the amniotic fluid and umbilical cord tissue specimens, respectively. Other cocaine analyses frequently detected included ecgonine methyl ester and m-hydroxy benzoylecgonine in amniotic fluid specimens and ecgooine methyl ester, norcocaine, and m-hydroxybenzoylecgonine in umbilical cord tissue specimens. This study has shown that cocaine and its metabolites are readily detected in specimens of maternal and fetal origin.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)97-104
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Analytical Toxicology
Volume21
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - 1997

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Toxicology
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
  • Chemical Health and Safety

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