Design Maps for the Hyperthermic Treatment of Tumors with Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles

Antonio Cervadoro, Chiara Giverso, Rohit Pande, Subhasis Sarangi, Luigi Preziosi, Jarek Wosik, Audrius Brazdeikis, Paolo Decuzzi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

69 Scopus citations

Abstract

A plethora of magnetic nanoparticles has been developed and investigated under different alternating magnetic fields (AMF) for the hyperthermic treatment of malignant tissues. Yet, clinical applications of magnetic hyperthermia are sporadic, mostly due to the low energy conversion efficiency of the metallic nanoparticles and the high tissue concentrations required. Here, we study the hyperthermic performance of commercially available formulations of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs), with core diameter of 5, 7 and 14 nm, in terms of absolute temperature increase ΔT and specific absorption rate (SAR). These nanoparticles are operated under a broad range of AMF conditions, with frequency f varying between 0.2 and 30 MHz; field strength H ranging from 4 to 10 kA m-1; and concentration cMNP varying from 0.02 to 3.5 mg ml-1. At high frequency field (~30 MHz), non specific heating dominates and ΔT correlates with the electrical conductivity of the medium. At low frequency field (<1 MHz), non specific heating is negligible and the relaxation of the SPIO within the AMF is the sole energy source. We show that the ΔT of the medium grows linearly with cMNP, whereas the SARMNP of the magnetic nanoparticles is independent of cMNP and varies linearly with f and H2. Using a computational model for heat transport in a biological tissue, the minimum requirements for local hyperthermia (Ttissue >42°C) and thermal ablation (Ttissue >50°C) are derived in terms of cMNP, operating AMF conditions and blood perfusion. The resulting maps can be used to rationally design hyperthermic treatments and identifying the proper route of administration - systemic versus intratumor injection - depending on the magnetic and biodistribution properties of the nanoparticles.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere57332
JournalPLoS ONE
Volume8
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 25 2013

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • General

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