Signal transducers and activators of transcription (Stat) proteins are latent cytoplasmic transcription factors that are tyrosine phosphorylated by Janus kinases (Jak) in response to GH and other cytokines. GH activates Stat5 by a mechanism that involves tyrosine phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. However, the mechanisms that turn off the GH-activated Jak2/Stat5 pathway are unknown. Continuous exposure to GH of BRL-4 cells, a rat hepatoma cell line stably transfected with rat GH receptor, induces a rapid but transient activation of Jak2 and Stat5. GH-induced Stat5 DNA- binding activity was detected after 2 min and reached a maximum at 10 min. Continued exposure to GH resulted in a desensitization characterized by 1) a rapid decrease in Stat5 DNA-binding activity. The rate of decrease of activity was rapid up to 1 h of GH treatment, and the remaining activity declined slowly thereafter. The activity of Stat5 present after 5 h is still higher than the control levels and almost 10-20% with respect to maximal activity at 10 min; and 2) the inability of further GH treatment to reinduce activation of Stat5. In contrast, with transient exposures of BRL-4 cells to GH, Stat5 DNA-binding activity could repeatedly be induced. GH-induced Jak2 and Stat5 activities were independent of ongoing protein synthesis. However, Jak2 tyrosine phosphorylation and Stat5 DNA-binding activity were prolonged for at least 4 h in the presence of cycloheximide, which suggests that the maintenance of desensitization requires ongoing protein synthesis. Furthermore, inhibition of protein synthesis potentiated GH-induced transcriptional activity in BRL-4 cells transiently transfected with SPIGLE1CAT, a reporter plasmid activated by Stat5. GH-induced Jak2 and Stat5 activation were not affected by D609 or mepacrine, both inhibitors of phospholipase C. However, in the presence of D609 and mepacrine, GH maintained prolonged Jak2 and Stat5 activation. Transactivation of SPIGLE1 by GH was potentiated by mepacrine and D609 but not by the phospholipase A2 inhibitor AACOCF3. Thus, a regulatory circuit of GH-induced transcription through the Jak2/Stat5-signaling pathway includes a prompt GH-induced activation of Jak2/Stat5 followed by a negative regulatory response; ongoing protein synthesis and intracellular signaling pathways, where phospholipase C activity is involved, play a critical role to desensitize the GH-activated Jak2/Stat5-signaling pathway.
ASJC Scopus subject areas