Depression following traumatic brain injury: The validity of the CES-D as a brief screening device

Beverly A. Bush, Thomas A. Novack, Jeffrey J. Schneider, Alok Madan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


The validity, reliability, and factor structure of the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) was examined with 253 patients seen for neuropsychological evaluation following traumatic brain injury (TBI). All patients completed the CES-D; 31 also completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and 17 completed the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-II (MMPI-II). The CES-D demonstrated good concurrent, construct validity, significantly correlating with the BDI (r = .673, p < .0001) and the MMPI-II (Depression Scale T score r = .536, p = .027). The CES-D also demonstrated good internal consistency (coefficient alpha = .8195) and split-half reliability (Spearman-Brown r = .8284). Principal components factor analysis with varimax rotation resulted in a four-factor solution that accounted for 56.01% of the variance. The factor structure differed from the originally reported factor structure, and indicated that somatic difficulties were strongly associated with dysphoric affect in TBI patients. The CES-D is a valid and reliable screening instrument for use with TBI patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)195-201
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2004


  • Assessment
  • CES-D
  • Depression
  • Traumatic brain injury

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology


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