The ability to repair promutagenic damage resulting from exposure to carcinogens is a critical factor in determining quantitative relationships in carcinogenesis, including the target cell for neoplasia. One major pathway for the repair of alkylating agent-induced DNA damage involves removal of alkylated bases by N-methylpurine-DNA-glycosylase (MPG), the first enzyme in base excision repair. We have measured the expression level of MPG mRNA in liver, lung, and kidney of Sprague-Dawley rats as a function of age. A quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) method was used to measure cellular MPG mRNA. MPG mRNA was readily detectable in each tissue analyzed and the age-dependent and tissue specific expressions were not statistically different. The lowest amount of mRNA was measured in preweanling liver and the highest amounts were found in preweanling lung and kidney. Since MPG is reported to be responsible for excision of 1,N6-ethenoadenine and N2,3-ethenoguanine, two promutagenic DNA adducts of vinyl chloride (VC) and vinyl fluoride (VF), we examined the regulation of this enzyme after carcinogen exposure. Expression of MPG was induced in rat liver by these carcinogens. In order to determine the repair capacity in different cell populations of liver, we measured MPG gene expression in isolated hepatocytes and nonparenchymal cells (NPC). The amount of MPG mRNA was 4.5-5 times higher in hepatocytes than in NPC of control rats. Induction of MPG expression was observed in hepatocytes of VF exposed-rats but not in NPC. The expression of MPG in NPC was only 15% of that of the hepatocytes from exposed rats. Western blots of MPG protein confirmed the cell type differences, but did not show increased protein in exposed vs. control liver and hepatocytes. Since metabolism of VC and VF requires CYP2E1, an enzyme exhibiting much greater activity in hepatocytes, formation of etheno adducts preferentially occurs in hepatocytes. These data suggest that cellular differences in the repair of N-alkylpurines may be a critical mechanism in the development of cell specificity in VC carcinogenesis. Copyright (C) 2000.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology