Deep PUF: A Highly Reliable DRAM PUF-Based Authentication for IoT Networks Using Deep Convolutional Neural Networks

Fatemeh Najafi, Masoud Kaveh, Diego Martín, Mohammad Reza Mosavi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


Traditional authentication techniques, such as cryptographic solutions, are vulnerable to various attacks occurring on session keys and data. Physical unclonable functions (PUFs) such as dynamic random access memory (DRAM)-based PUFs are introduced as promising security blocks to enable cryptography and authentication services. However, PUFs are often sensitive to internal and external noises, which cause reliability issues. The requirement of additional robustness and reliability leads to the involvement of error-reduction methods such as error correction codes (ECCs) and pre-selection schemes that cause considerable extra overheads. In this paper, we propose deep PUF: a deep convolutional neural network (CNN)-based scheme using the latency-based DRAM PUFs without the need for any additional error correction technique. The proposed framework provides a higher number of challenge-response pairs (CRPs) by eliminating the pre-selection and filtering mechanisms. The entire complexity of device identification is moved to the server side that enables the authentication of resource-constrained nodes. The experimental results from a 1Gb DDR3 show that the responses under varying conditions can be classified with at least a 94.9% accuracy rate by using CNN. After applying the proposed authentication steps to the classification results, we show that the probability of identification error can be drastically reduced, which leads to a highly reliable authentication.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2009
Pages (from-to)1-16
Number of pages16
JournalSensors (Basel, Switzerland)
Issue number6
StatePublished - Mar 12 2021


  • Authentication
  • Convolutional neural network
  • DRAM latency-based PUF
  • IoT

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Information Systems
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Biochemistry
  • Instrumentation
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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