Cytokeratin 19 immunolocalization in cell block preparation of thyroid aspirates: An adjunct to fine-needle aspiration diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma

Kamal K. Khurana, Luan Truong, Virginia A. LiVolsi, Zubair W. Baloch

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

38 Scopus citations

Abstract

Context. - Immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratin 19 (CK-19) is a useful ancillary technique for diagnosing papillary thyroid carcinoma (papillary carcinoma) in histologic specimens. Although similar results have been obtained on aspirate smears, to our knowledge the utility of CK-19 immunolocalization in cell block preparations as an adjunct to fine-needle aspiration diagnosis of papillary carcinoma has not been examined. Objective. - The purpose of this study was to determine whether CK-19 immunostaining of cell block preparations of thyroid aspirates is a useful ancillary technique for diagnosing papillary carcinoma. Materials and Methods. - Using a monoclonal antibody to CK-19 and a standard avidin-biotin complex technique, immunostaining was performed on paraffin-embedded cell blocks of 57 cases with the following cytologic diagnoses: (a) papillary carcinoma (20 cases); (b) atypical cytology, cannot exclude papillary carcinoma (19 cases); and (c) nonneoplastic thyroid (18 cases). The staining reaction in each case was graded on the basis of percentage of epithelial cells stained (1+, <10%; 2+, <10%-50%; 3+, >50). Tissue follow-up was available in all cases. Results. - Nineteen (95%) of 20 cases with an unequivocal diagnosis of papillary carcinoma were positive for CK-19 (3+). Tissue follow-up confirmed papillary carcinoma in all 20 cases. Of the 19 cases with a diagnosis of atypical cytology, cannot exclude papillary carcinoma, 7 (37%) cases displayed 3+ immunostaining and subsequent excision confirmed papillary carcinoma in all 7 cases. The remaining 12 cases with 1+ immunostaining included surgically confirmed goiter (6 cases), adenoma (2 cases), lymphocytic thyroiditis (3 cases), and papillary carcinoma (1 case). The follicular cells in 18 cases with a cytologic diagnosis of nonneoplastic thyroid showed 1+ immunostaining. Histologic follow-up of these cases confirmed the nonneoplastic cytologic diagnoses. Conclusions. - Cytokeratin 19 immunostaining of cell block preparations of thyroid aspirates serves as a useful tool for the diagnosis of papillary carcinoma. Strong immunostaining (3+) for CK-19 aids in accurate diagnosis of malignancy in cytomorphologically equivocal cases of papillary carcinoma.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)579-583
Number of pages5
JournalArchives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
Volume127
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 1 2003

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Medical Laboratory Technology

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