Cryptococcosis: Population-based multistate active surveillance and risk factors in human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons

Rana A. Hajjeh, Laura A. Conn, David S. Stephens, Wendy Baughman, Richard Hamill, Edward Graviss, Peter G. Pappas, Carolynn Thomas, Arthur Reingold, Gretchen Rothrock, Lori C. Hutwagner, Anne Schuchat, Mary E. Brandt, Robert W. Pinner, Monica Farley, Molly Bardsley, Betsy Siegel, Georgia Jackson, Chris Lao, Jodie OtteChristopher Harvey, David Rimland, Roger Gillespie, Bharat Pattni, Pam Daily, Nivin Shihata, Elias Durry

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

214 Scopus citations

Abstract

To determine the incidence of cryptococcosis and its risk factors among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons, population-based active surveillance was conducted in four US areas (population, 12.5 million) during 1992-1994, and a case-control study was done. Of 1083 cases, 931 (86%) occurred in HIV-infected persons. The annual incidence of cryptococcosis per 1000 among persons living with AIDS ranged from 17 (San Francisco, 1994) to 66 (Atlanta, 1992) and decreased significantly in these cities during 1992- 1994. Among non-HIV-infected persons, the annual incidence of cryptococcosis ranged from 0.2 to 0.9/100.000. Multivariate analysis of the case-control study (158 cases and 423 controls) revealed smoking and outdoor occupations to be significantly associated with an increased risk of cryptococcosis; receiving fluconazole within 3 months before enrollment was associated with a decreased risk for cryptococcosis. Further studies are needed to better describe persons with AIDS currently developing cryptococcosis in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)449-454
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Infectious Diseases
Volume179
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 25 1999
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Infectious Diseases

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