There are limited reports on methylation analysis of the premalignant lesions of gastric carcinoma thus far. This is despite the fact that gastric carcinoma is one of the tumors with a high frequency of CpG island hypermethylation. To determine the frequency and timing of hypermethylation during multistep gastric carcinogenesis, non-neoplastic gastric mucosa (n = 118), adenomas (n = 61), and carcinomas (n = 64) were analyzed for their p16, human Mut L homologue 1 (hMLH1), death-associated protein (DAP)-kinase, thromobospondin-1 (THBS1), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 (TIMP-3) methylation status using methylation-specific PCR. Three different classes of methylation behaviors were found in the five tested genes. DAP-kinase was methylated at a similar frequency in all four stages, whereas hMLH1 and p16 were methylated in cancer samples (20.3% and 42.2%, respectively) more frequently than in intestinal metaplasia (6.3% and 2.1%, respectively) or adenomas (9.8% and 11.5%, respectively). However, hMLH1 and p16 were not methylated in chronic gastritis. THBS-1 and TIMP-3 were methylated in all stages but showed a marked increase in hypermethylation frequency from chronic gastritis (10.1% and 14.5%, respectively) to intestinal metaplasia (34.7% and 36.7%, respectively; P < 0.05) and from adenomas (28.3% and 26.7%, respectively) to carcinomas (48.4% and 57.4%, respectively; P < 0.05). The hMLH1, THBS1, and TIMP-3 hypermethylation frequencies were similar in both intestinal metaplasia and adenomas, but the p16 hypermethylation frequency tended to be higher in adenomas (11.5%) than in intestinal metaplasia (2.1%; P = 0.073). The average number of methylated genes was 0.6, 1.1, 1.1, and 2.0 per five genes per sample in chronic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, adenomas, and carcinomas, respectively. This shows a marked increase in methylated genes from non-metaplastic mucosa to intestinal metaplasia (P = 0.001) as well as from premalignant lesions to carcinomas (P = 0.002). These results suggest that CpG island hypermethylation occur early in multistep gastric carcinogenesis and tend to accumulate along the multistep carcinogenesis.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||5|
|State||Published - Apr 1 2001|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research