Correlation between Candida albicans biofilm formation and invasion of the invertebrate host Galleria mellonella

Elisa Borghi, Solange Romagnoli, Beth Burgwyn Fuchs, Daniela Cirasola, Federica Perdoni, Delfina Tosi, Paola Braidotti, Gaetano Bulfamante, Giulia Morace, Eleftherios Mylonakis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


Aim: The aim of our study was to investigate whether biofilm production by Candida albicans clinical isolates could be a hallmark of virulence in vivo. Materials & methods: Twenty clinical isolates of C. albicans were examined via histological studies on larvae infected with various fungal doses (from 103 to 105 CFU/larva) of biofilm producer and nonproducer strains. Results: The poor prognostic role of infection due to a biofilm-producing isolate was confirmed by the Wald test (hazard ratio: 2.63; 95% CI: 2.03-3.41). Histological examinations at 24 h showed a strong innate immune response, with evidence of melanization for both infection groups. However, at 48 h, we found huge differences in filamentation and tissue invasion capability between biofilm nonproducing and producing isolates, the latter being highly organized into biofilm and invading the larval intestinal tract. Invasion corroborated survival data. Conclusion: The histological results demonstrate that the production of biofilm could enhance the invasiveness of C. albicans.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)163-173
Number of pages11
JournalFuture Microbiology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2014


  • Biofilm
  • Candida albicans
  • Galleria mellonella
  • Histology
  • Virulence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Microbiology (medical)


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