1. In the liver of rat fed a single dose of 3-thia fatty acids, 3-dithiahexadecanedioic acid (3-thiadicarboxylic acid) and tetradecylthioacetic acid, steady-state levels of P4504A1 and fatty acyl-CoA oxidase mRNAs increased in parallel. The increases were significant 8h after administration, reaching a maximum after 12h and decreased from 12 to 24h after administration. 2. The corresponding enzyme activities of P4504A1 and fatty acyl-CoA oxidase were also induced in a parallel manner by the 3-thia fatty acids. The enzyme activities were significantly increased 12h after administration and increased further after 24h. This may reflect a possible effect of the 3-thia fatty acids not only on mRNA levels, but also on the translation and degradation rate of the two enzymes. 3. Repeated administration of 3-thia fatty acids resulted in an increase of the specific P4504A1 protein accompanied with an increased lauric acid hydroxylase activity. The correlation between induction of P4504A1 and fatty acyl-CoA oxidase mRNAs and their enzyme activities may reflect a coordinated rather than a causative induction mechanism, and that these genes respond to a common signal. This suggests that the increased P450 activity may not be responsible or be a prerequisite for fatty acyl-CoA oxidase induction. 4. Since the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) plays a role in mediating the induction of fatty acyl-CoA oxidase, we analysed the activation of PPAR by fatty acids and sulphur-substituted analogues utilizing a chimera between the N-terminal and DNA-binding domain of the glucocorticoid receptor and the putative ligand-binding domain of PPAR. Arachidonic acid activated this chimeric receptor in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Inhibitors of P450 did not affect the activation of PPAR by arachidonic acid. Furthermore, dicarboxylic acids including 1,1-dodecanedioic acid or 1,16-hexadecanedioic acid only weakly activated the chimera. 3-Thiadicarboxylic acid, however, was a much more effective activator than the non-sulphur-substituted analogues. In conclusion, the data suggest that the most likely mechanism of the induction process is fatty acid-induced activation of PPAR, which then leads to a coordinated induction of P4504A1 and fatty acyl-CoA oxidase.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis