In uncomplicated hypertension, <140/90 mmHg is the treatment goal for individuals aged 18-79 and between 140 mmHg and 150 mmHg in those 80 years of age. Inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, as well as calcium channel blockers, are universally accepted as first-line therapy in uncomplicated hypertension, but controversy exists over the role of thiazide diuretics and beta blockers. Because at similar blood pressure (BP) levels, African Americans have more target organ damage than whites, a lower goal of <135/85 mmHg is recommended. In patients with coronary artery disease, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease, <130/80 mmHg is recommended. Masked hypertension, defined as normal clinic BP with a high average self-monitored or ambulatory BP, is prevalent in those with chronic kidney disease, diabetes, and obstructive sleep apnea. Masked hypertension is associated with worse outcome. Ambulatory BP monitoring for those at risk for masked hypertension needs to be incorporated into guidelines.
- Blood pressure
- Essential hypertension
- Masked hypertension
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- History and Philosophy of Science