Consensus guidelines of cardiovascular risk assessment in kidney transplantation in Saudi Arabia: Review of current practice, evidence, and recommendations

Ziad Arabi, Abdulrahman Theaby, Abdulrazak Sibai, Muhammad Bukhari, M. Al Chaghouri, Mouaz Al-Mallah, Wael Ohali, Khalid Abdullah, Hatim Kheirallah, Hasan Eid, Haitham Rojolah, Maryam Qaseer, Khalid Hamawi, Murtada Halim

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Screening for cardiovascular (CV) disease before transplant is common. However, the clinical utility of screening asymptomatic transplant candidates remains unclear. There is a large degree of variation among the practices of the different transplant centers in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and among the international guidelines. Opinions are mostly based on mixed observational data with a great potential for bias. When compared to the Western countries, renal-transplant candidates in the KSA are likely to have longer dialysis vintage, higher prevalence of catheter use, higher rate of uncontrolled hyperparathyroidism, and high prevalence of diabetes. These factors are likely to expose renal-transplant candidates to a higher CV risk than those in Western countries. In the absence of any published guideline for CV risk assessment of the renal-transplant candidate in the KSA, we present these guidelines as the first published guidelines in the KSA. These guidelines review the pertinent aspects from the most recent American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines for cardiac disease evaluation and management among kidney-transplant candidates and reflect on the local practices in the KSA. These guidelines overview many of the daily- encountered challenges in renal transplantation such as the indications for stress testing, screening coronary angiogram and prophylactic revascularization, screening and management of pulmonary hypertension, cardiac surveillance while on the waiting list and duration of dual-antiplatelet therapy before renal transplant. These guidelines were reviewed by a team of consultant nephrologists, cardiologists, anesthesiologists, and transplant surgeons from six major transplant centers in the KSA. The guidelines aim to standardize the practices of CV risk assessment in kidney transplantation in the KSA, according to the most up-to-date available evidence. The expected impact of these guidelines on the current practices is also reviewed here.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)655-675
Number of pages21
JournalSaudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation : an official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 1 2020

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology
  • Transplantation


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