Ligands occupy the core of nuclear receptor (NR) ligand binding domains (LBDs) and modulate NR function. X-ray structures of NR LBDs reveal most NR agonists fill the enclosed pocket and promote packing of C-terminal helix 12 (H12), whereas the pockets of unliganded NR LBDs differ. Here, we review evidence that NR pockets rearrange to accommodate different agonists. Some thyroid hormone receptor (TR) ligands with 5′ extensions designed to perturb H12 act as antagonists, but many are agonists. One mode of adaptation is seen in a TR/thyroxine complex; the pocket expands to accommodate a 5′ iodine extension. Crystals of other NR LBDs reveal that the pocket can expand or contract and some agonists do not fill the pocket. A TRβ structure in complex with an isoform selective drug (GC-24) reveals another mode of adaptation; the LBD hydrophobic interior opens to accommodate a bulky 3′ benzyl extension. We suggest that placement of extensions on NR agonists will highlight unexpected areas of flexibility within LBDs that could accommodate extensions; thereby enhancing the selectivity of agonist binding to particular NRs. Finally, agonists that induce similar LBD structures differ in their activities and we discuss strategies to reveal subtle structural differences responsible for these effects.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||11|
|Journal||Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology|
|State||Published - Feb 2005|
- Thyroid hormone
- Thyroid hormone receptor
ASJC Scopus subject areas