Computer-assisted three-dimensional surgical planning and simulation: 3D soft tissue planning and prediction

James Xia, Nabil Samman, Richie W.K. Yeung, Dongfeng Wang, Steve G.F. Shen, Horace H.S. Ip, Henk Tideman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

85 Scopus citations


The purpose of this paper is to report a new technique for three-dimensional facial soft-tissue-change prediction after simulated orthognathic surgical planning. A scheme for soft tissue deformation, "Computer-assisted three-dimensional virtual reality soft tissue planning and prediction for orthognathic surgery (CASP)", is presented. The surgical planning was based on three-dimensional reconstructed CT visualization. Soft tissue changes were predicted by two newly devised algorithms: Surface Normal-based Model Deformation Algorithm and Ray Projection-based Model Deformation Algorithm. A three-dimensional color facial texture-mapping technique was also used for generating the color photo-realistic facial model. As a final result, a predicted and simulated patient's color facial model can be visualized from arbitrary viewing points.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)250-258
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 2000


  • Facial modeling
  • Orthognathic surgery
  • Photo-realistic
  • Soft tissue deformation
  • Soft tissue prediction
  • Three-dimensional surgical planning
  • Virtual reality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dentistry(all)
  • Otorhinolaryngology
  • Surgery


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