Competencies for the Use of Artificial Intelligence in Primary Care

Winston Liaw, Jacqueline K. Kueper, Steven Lin, Andrew Bazemore, Ioannis Kakadiaris

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


The artificial intelligence (AI) revolution has arrived for the health care sector and is finally penetrating the far-reaching but perpetually underfinanced primary care platform. While AI has the potential to facilitate the achievement of the Quintuple Aim (better patient out-comes, population health, and health equity at lower costs while preserving clinician well-being), inattention to primary care training in the use of AI-based tools risks the opposite effects, imposing harm and exacerbating inequalities. The impact of AI-based tools on these aims will depend heavily on the decisions and skills of primary care clinicians; there-fore, appropriate medical education and training will be crucial to maximize potential ben-efits and minimize harms. To facilitate this training, we propose 6 domains of competency for the effective deployment of AI-based tools in primary care: (1) foundational knowledge (what is this tool?), (2) critical appraisal (should I use this tool?), (3) medical decision mak-ing (when should I use this tool?), (4) technical use (how do I use this tool?), (5) patient communication (how should I communicate with patients regarding the use of this tool?), and (6) awareness of unintended consequences (what are the “side effects” of this tool?). Integrating these competencies will not be straightforward because of the breadth of knowledge already incorporated into family medicine training and the constantly changing technological landscape. Nonetheless, even incremental increases in AI-relevant training may be beneficial, and the sooner these challenges are tackled, the sooner the primary care workforce and those served by it will begin to reap the benefits.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)559-563
Number of pages5
JournalAnnals of Family Medicine
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 1 2022


  • AI training
  • artificial intelligence
  • domains of competency
  • primary care education

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Family Practice


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