Comparison of prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of cardiovascular risk factors in China and the United States

Yuan Lu, Pei Wang, Tianna Zhou, Jiapeng Lu, Erica S. Spatz, Khurram Nasir, Lixin Jiang, Harlan M. Krumholz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

64 Scopus citations


Background--The reasons for China's high stroke prevalence are not well understood. The cardiovascular risk factor profiles of China and the United States have not been directly compared in nationally representative population samples. Methods and Results--Using data from the CHARLS (China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study) and the NHANES (US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey), we compared cardiovascular risk factors from 2011 to 2012 among people aged 45 to 75 years between the 2 countries (China, 12 654 people; United States, 2607 people): blood pressure, cholesterol, body mass index, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Compared with the United States, China had a lower prevalence of hypertension but a higher mean blood pressure and a higher proportion of patients with severe hypertension (≥160/100 mm Hg) (10.5% versus 4.5%). China had substantially lower rates of hypertension treatment (46.8% versus 77.9%) and control (20.3% versus 54.7%). Dyslipidemia was less common in China, but lipid levels were not significantly different because dyslipidemia awareness and control rates in China were 3- and 7-fold lower than US rates, respectively. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein, body mass index, and waist circumference were significantly lower in China than in the United States. Clustering of hypertension with other cardiovascular risk factors was more common in China. Conclusions--Hypertension is more common in the United States, but blood pressure levels are higher in China, which may be responsible for China's high stroke prevalence. The low rates of awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension provide an exceptional opportunity for China to reduce risk in its population.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere007462
JournalJournal of the American Heart Association
Issue number3
StatePublished - Feb 1 2018


  • Cardiovascular diseases prevention
  • Cardiovascular diseases risk factors
  • Global disparities
  • International comparison

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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