Introduction: Rheolytic thrombectomy using the AngioJet catheter for arterial thrombosis has been shown to be effective in restoring blood flow. Additional infusion of thrombolytic agents via the AngioJet catheter results in combined rheolytic pharmacomechanical thrombolysis (PMT), which further enhances thrombectomy efficacy. However, the histologic response to rheolytic PMT therapy remains unclear. This study compares the acute and chronic vessel wall response and hemolysis due to conventional AngioJet rheolytic thrombectomy (RT) and AngioJet PMT in the porcine peripheral arterial model. Methods: A total of 19 juvenile pigs were divided into acute and chronic groups. In the acute group (n = 6), bilateral common carotid, femoral, and iliac arteries ranging from 3 to 6 mm in diameter were randomized to the control RT group or to PMT therapy. Vessels were analyzed 4 days following interventions. In the chronic group (n = 5), bilateral common carotid, femoral, and iliac arteries ranging from 3 to 6 mm in diameter were randomized to the control RT group or to PMT therapy. Vessels were analyzed at 30 days following interventions. Hemolytic evaluation was performed in additional eight pigs, which were randomized to either RT or PMT intervention. Results: In the acute group, similar histologic injury grades were noted between the RT- and PMT-treated femoral and iliac vessels. Endothelial denudation in the RT and PMT vessels were 43% and 39% (NS), respectively. Vessels with intact internal elastic lamina (IEL) in the RT and PMT groups were 54% and 57% (NS), respectively. In vessels < 4 mm in diameter, fractured IEL in the AT and PMT groups occurred in 23% and 27% (NS), respectively. The degrees of smooth muscle cell (SMC) loss were similar for the RT- and PMT-treated vessels (45% and 40%, respectively; NS). In the chronic group, no differences were seen between the RT and PMT groups with respect to endothelial denudation, IEL fracture rate, or SMC loss. Similar degrees of medial thickening or intimal hyperplasia were noted in the RT and PMT groups (49% and 43%, respectively; NS). No difference in hemolytic effect was noted in the treatment groups. Conclusions: AngioJet rheolytic pharmacomechanical thrombectomy treatment incurs an equivalent safety profile in medium-caliber peripheral arteries when compared to rheolytic thrombectomy treatment. No difference in hemolytic reaction occurred in either group. The observed clinical efficacy of rheolytic pharmacomechanical thrombectomy does not result in untoward vessel injury compared to conventional rheolytic thrombectomy therapy.
ASJC Scopus subject areas