Comparative transcriptome profile of mouse macrophages treated with the RhoA/Rock pathway inhibitors Y27632, Fingolimod (Gilenya), and Rezurock (Belumosudil, SLx-2119)

Arijita Subuddhi, Ahmed Uosef, Dawei Zou, Henry V. Ubelaker, Rafik M. Ghobrial, Malgorzata Kloc

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Macrophages play a crucial role in, the currently uncurable, chronic rejection of transplants. In rodent transplantation models, inhibition of the RhoA/Rock pathway disrupts actin-related functions of macrophages, preventing them from entering the graft, and reducing vessel occlusion, fibrosis, and chronic rejection. Among RhoA/Rock inhibitors that inhibit chronic rejection in mouse transplantation are Y27632, Fingolimod, and Rezurock. In a mouse model, Rezurok is more effective in preventing fibrosis and less effective in preventing vessel occlusion than Y27632 or Fingolimod. Fingolimod is FDA-approved for treating multiple sclerosis (MS) and Rezurock for chronic graft versus host disease (GVHD). Still, none had been tested for chronic rejection in humans. To explain the differences in the anti-chronic rejection properties of Y27632, Fingolimod, and Rezurock, we compared the transcriptome profile of mouse macrophages treated with these compounds separately. Treatment with Y27632 or Fingolimod downregulated GTPase and actin pathways involved in cell migration. Rezurock downregulated genes related to fibrosis, such as PTX3, CCR2, CCL2, cell cycle, DNA replication, adaptive immune response, and organelle assembly, while Fingolimod also specifically downregulated NOTCH1 at mRNA. The result of this study not only uncovers which pathways are shared or specific for these drugs but will help in the development of macrophage pathway-targeted therapies in human transplantation, MS, and GVHD. Because macrophages are the major players in immune response, tissue regeneration, renewal, and homeostasis, and development of many diseases, including cancer, the data compiled here will help in designing novel or improved therapies in many clinical applications.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number110017
JournalInternational Immunopharmacology
StatePublished - May 1 2023


  • Fibrosis
  • Fingolimod
  • Macrophage
  • Rezurock
  • Transcriptome
  • Y27632


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