Colonization with methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus and risk for infection among asymptomatic athletes: A systematic review and metaanalysis

Styliani Karanika, Tori Kinamon, Christos Grigoras, Eleftherios Mylonakis

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background. Athletes are a vulnerable population for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. Our aim was to determine MRSA colonization in asymptomatic athletes and estimate the risk for subsequent MRSA infection. Methods. We searched the PubMed and EMBASE (through 29 October 2015) for studies on MRSA colonization among asymptomatic athletes. Results. The pooled prevalence of MRSA colonization among athletes was 6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1,13), and it was higher in the United States (8%; 95% CI, 2,17). USA300 was the most common strain detected (22%), and 62% and 36% of isolates were resistant to clindamycin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, respectively. The prevalence of MRSA colonization among collegiate athletes reached 13% (95% CI, 4,25). Sports with the highest prevalence among collegiate athletes were wrestling (22%; 95% CI, 0,85), football (8%; 95% CI, 3,15) and basketball (8%; 95% CI, 0,28). The risk for MRSA skin and soft tissue infection within 3 months after documented colonization among MRSA-colonized athletes was significantly higher than for noncolonized athletes (relative risk = 7.37, 95% CI, [2.47,21.94]). Decolonization treatment among colonized athletes decreased significantly the risk for infection (relative risk reduction = 0.33; 95% CI,.03,4.28). Conclusions. The prevalence of MRSA colonization among asymptomatic athletes is comparable to that among individuals with chronic illness, it is higher among collegiate athletes and can be twice that for patients in intensive care units. Importantly, colonization is associated with a >7-fold increase in the incidence of subsequent MRSA infection. Infection control and decontamination protocols for this population need to be studied and implemented with urgency.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)195-204
Number of pages10
JournalClinical Infectious Diseases
Volume63
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - 2021

Keywords

  • Athletes
  • Metaanalysis
  • Methicillin-resistant S. aureus
  • MRSA
  • Risk for infection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

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