Coccygodynia: evaluation and management.

Guy R. Fogel, Paul Y. Cunningham, Stephen I. Esses

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

112 Scopus citations


Coccygodynia is pain in the region of the coccyx. In most cases, abnormal mobility is seen on dynamic standing and seated radiographs, although the cause of pain is unknown in other patients. Bone scans and magnetic resonance imaging may show inflammation and edema, but neither technique is as accurate as dynamic radiography. Treatment for patients with severe pain should begin with injection of local anesthetic and corticosteroid into the painful segment. Coccygeal massage and stretching of the levator ani muscle can help. Coccygectomy is done only when nonsurgical treatment fails, which is infrequent. Coccygectomy usually is successful in carefully selected patients, with the best results in those with radiographically demonstrated abnormalities of coccygeal mobility.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)49-54
Number of pages6
JournalThe Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2004

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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