Clinical presentations in combat veterans diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder

Jon D. Elhai, B. Christopher Frueh, Joanne L. Davis, Gerard A. Jacobs, Mark B. Hamner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


This article investigated subtypes of symptom patterns among male combat veterans diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) through a cluster analysis of their Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2; Butcher, Graham, Ben-Porath, Tellegen, Dahlstrom, & Kaemmer, 2001) clinical and validity scales. Participants were 126 veterans seeking outpatient treatment for combat-related PTSD at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Two well-fitting MMPI-2 cluster solutions (a four-cluster solution and a three-cluster solution) were evaluated with several statistical methods. A four-cluster solution was determined to best fit the data, Follow-up analyses demonstrated between-cluster differences on MMPI-2 "fake bad" scales and content scales, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI; Beck, Ward, Mendelson, Mock, & Erbaugh, 1961), Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES; Bernstein & Putnam, 1986), Mississippi Combat PTSD scale (M-PTSD; Keane, Caddall, & Taylor, 1988), and Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS-1; Blake et al., 1990). Clusters also were different in disability-seeking status, employment status, and income. Implications for research and clinical practice using the MMPI-2 with combat veterans presenting with PTSD are briefly addressed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)385-397
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Clinical Psychology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2003


  • Cluster analysis
  • MMPI-2
  • Military veterans
  • Posttraumatic stress disorder

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Clinical Psychology


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