TP53 deletion (ΔTP53) in myeloma is known to be a high-risk finding associated with poorer prognosis. The prognostic impact of underlying cytogenetic heterogeneity in patients with myeloma associated with ΔTP53 is unknown. We studied 90 patients with myeloma associated with ΔTP53 identified by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization and assessed the impact of karyotype and coexisting alterations of IGH, RB1, and CKS1B. There were 54 men and 36 women with a median age of 59 years (range 38-84); 14 patients had a normal karyotype (NK/ΔTP53), 73 had a complex karyotype (CK/ΔTP53), and 3 had a non-complex abnormal karyotype. Patients with CK/ΔTP53 showed a significantly poorer overall survival compared with patients with NK/ΔTP53 (P=0.0243). Furthermore, in the CK/ΔTP53 group, patients with IGH rearrangement other than t(11;14)(q13;q32)/CCND1-IGH, designated as adverse-IGH, had an even worse outcome (P=0.0045). In contrast, RB1 deletion, CKS1B gain, ploidy, additional chromosome 17 abnormalities, or ΔTP53 clone size did not impact prognosis. Stem cell transplant did not improve overall survival in either the NK/ΔTP53 or CK/ΔTP53 (P=0.8810 and P=0.1006) groups, but tandem stem cell transplant did improve the overall survival of patients with CK/ΔTP53 (P=0.0067). Multivariate analysis confirmed in this cohort that complex karyotype (hazard ratio 1.976, 95% CI 1.022-3.821, P=0.043), adverse-IGH (hazard ratio 3.126, 95% CI 1.192-8.196, P=0.020), and tandem stem cell transplant independently correlate with overall survival (hazard ratio 0.281, 95% CI 0.091-0.866, P=0.027). We conclude that comprehensive genetic assessment adds to TP53 status in the risk stratification of myeloma patients.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine