The risk of developing CVD is high among CKD patients and, as a result, cardiovascular-related complications account for high morbidity and mortality. Multiple factors contribute to CVD in CKD patients, including hypertension, anemia, inflammation, hyperlipidemia, calcium-phosphorus-parathyroid hormone imbalance, and hyperuricemia. Each one of these complications needs to be identified and treated in an attempt to improve survival. Early markers of CVD such as microalbuminuria and uric acid levels need to be added to the routine annual evaluation, particularly among high-risk individuals such as diabetics, hypertensives, smokers, and the elderly. Likewise, the use of eGFR is highly recommended as a screening tool in those individuals.
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