Unfractionated gasoline exhaust particle extracts, silica gel fractions, and recombined fractions were analyzed with capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and tested in three biological test systems based on different end points, namely, genotoxicity (Ames Salmonella mutagenicity test), aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) inducibility (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) receptor affinity test), and cytotoxicity to pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM cytotoxicity test). Fraction I contained aliphatic hydrocarbons and showed no activity in the biological tests. Fraction II contained PAH and showed mutagenicity in the presence of a metabolizing system (S9), TCDD-receptor affinity, and PAM cytotoxicity. Fractions III and IV gave high effects in all bioassays. In these fractions polynuclear aromatic ketones are the most abundant species. Fraction V contained the most polar species, including nitrogen-containing compounds, and showed a much weaker activity in the bioassays as compared to fractions III and IV.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Chemistry