Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma are both good targets for immunotherapy, as they are accessible to antibodies and cell-based immunotherapy, express costimulatory molecules, and express lineage-restricted, viral, and unique tumor antigens. Blockade of the programmed-death 1 (PD-1) immune checkpoint has produced very encouraging response rates in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma, whereas adoptive transfer of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-specific T cells has shown clinical activity in patients with posttransplant lymphoma and other EBV-associated lymphomas. T cells can also be genetically modified with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) to confer specificity for surface antigens, and studies of CD19 CARs in lymphoma also have had encouraging response rates. Future directions include combination of checkpoint blockade and adoptive T-cell studies.
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