Characteristics and costs of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis inpatient care in the United States, 2005-2007

S. M. Marks, Y. Hirsch-Moverman, K. Salcedo, E. A. Graviss, P. Oh, B. Seaworth, J. Flood, L. Armstrong, L. Armitige, S. Mase

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

28 Scopus citations


OBJECTIVE : A population-based study of 135 multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) during 2005-2007 found 73% were hospitalized. We analyzed factors associated with hospitalization. METHODS : We assessed statistically significant multivariable associations with US in-patient TB diagnosis, frequency of hospitalization, length of hospital stay, and in-patient direct costs to the health care system. RESULT S : Of 98 hospitalized patients, 83 (85%) were foreign-born. Blacks, diabetics, or smokers were more likely, and patients with disseminated disease less likely, to receive their TB diagnosis while hospitalized. Patients aged 765 years, those with the acquired immunedeficiency syndrome (AIDS), or with private insurance, were hospitalized more frequently. Excluding deaths, length of stay was greater for patients aged ≥65 years, those with extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB), those residing in Texas, those with AIDS, those who were unemployed, or those who had TB resistant to all first-line medications vs. others. Average hospitalization cost per XDR-TB patient (US$285 000) was 3.5 times that per MDR-TB patient (US$81 000), in 2010 dollars. Hospitalization episode costs for MDR-TB rank third highest and those for XDR-TB highest among the principal diagnoses. CONCLUSIONS : Hospitalization was common and remains a critical care component for patients who were older, had comorbidities, or required complex management due to XDR-TB. MDR-TB in-patient costs are among the highest for any disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)435-441
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 1 2016


  • Cost
  • Drug resistance
  • Hospitalization
  • TB

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Infectious Diseases


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