Chained lightning: Part III - Emerging technology, novel therapeutic strategies, and new energy modalities for radiosurgery

Daniel J. Hoh, Charles Y. Liu, Joseph C.T. Chen, Paul G. Pagnini, Cheng Yu, Michael Y. Wang, Michael L.J. Apuzzo

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


RADIOSURGERY IS FUNDAMENTALLY the harnessing of energy and delivering it to a focal target for a therapeutic effect. The evolution of radiosurgical technology and practice has served toward refining methodologies for better conformal energy delivery. In the past, this has resulted in developing strategies for improved beam generation and delivery. Ultimately, however, our current instrumentation and treatment modalities may be approaching a practical limit with regard to further optimizing energy containment.In looking forward, several strategies are emerging to circumvent these limitations and improve conformal radiosurgery. Refinement of imaging techniques through functional imaging and nanoprobes for cancer detection may benefit lesion localization and targeting. Methods for enhancing the biological effect while reducing radiation-induced changes are being examined through dose fractionation schedules. Radiosensitizers and photosensitizers are being investigated as agents for modulating the biological response of tissues to radiation and alternative energy forms. Discovery of new energy modalities is being pursued through development of microplanar beams, free electron lasers, and high-intensity focused ultrasound. The exploration of these future possibilities will provide the tools for radiosurgical treatment of a broader spectrum of diseases for the next generation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1111-1129
Number of pages19
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 2007


  • Medical technology
  • Minimally invasive surgery
  • Radiation oncology
  • Radiation physics
  • Radiosurgery
  • Radiotherapy
  • Stereotactic neurosurgery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Clinical Neurology


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