Central peptidergic neurons as targets for glucocorticoid action. Evidence for the presence of glucocorticoid receptor immunoreactivity in various types of classes of peptidergic neurons

A. Cintra, K. Fuxe, V. Solfrini, L. F. Agnati, B. Tinner, A. C. Wikström, W. Staines, S. Okret, J. Å Gustafsson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

75 Scopus citations

Abstract

By means of double immunolabeling procedures it has been possible to demonstrate glucocorticoid receptor (GR) immunoreactivity (IR) in large numbers of various peptidergic neurons of the brain including neurons containing gastrointestinal peptides, opioid peptides, and peptides with a hypothalamic hormone function. For each peptide system, however, marked heterogeneities exist among brain regions. Thus, in the neocortex and the hippocampal formation most of the brain peptide neurons lack GR IR, while the same types of peptide neurons in the arcuate and paraventricular nucleus [e.g. neuropeptide Y (NPY), somatostatin (SRIF) and the cholecystokinin (CCK) neurons] possess strong GR IR. Furthermore, in the arcuate, parvocellular part of the paraventricular nuclei aand the central amygdaloid nucleus practically all the peptidergic neurons are strongly GR IR, while in the lateral hypothalamus, mainly the neurotensin (NT) and galanin (GAL) IR neurons are GR IR. These marked differences among areas probably reflect functional differences dependent upon their participation in stress regulated circuits. All the paraventricular NT, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF), thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and SRIF IR neurons appear to contain GR IR, while the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) IR neurons lack GR IR, underlying the importance of glucocorticoids (GC) in controlling endocrine function. Finally, the GC may influence pain and mood control mainly via effects on enkephalin (ENK) neurons especially in the basal ganglia (mood) and on all β-endorphin (β-END) neurons of the arcuate nucleus, while most of the dynorphin neurons are not directly controlled by GC.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)93-103
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Volume40
Issue number1-3
DOIs
StatePublished - 1991

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Molecular Biology
  • Endocrinology
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Cell Biology

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