Cellular uptake and imaging studies of gadolinium-loaded single-walled carbon nanotubes as MRI contrast agents

Annie M. Tang, Jeyarama S. Ananta, Hong Zhao, Brandon T. Cisneros, Edmund Y. Lam, Stephen T. Wong, Lon J. Wilson, Kelvin K. Wong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

28 Scopus citations

Abstract

We quantify here, for the first time, the intracellular uptake (J774A.1 murine macrophage cells) of gadolinium-loaded ultra-short single-walled carbon nanotubes (gadonanotubes or GNTs) in a 3 T MRI scanner using R2 and R2* mapping in vitro. GNT-labeled cells exhibited high and linear changes in net transverse relaxations (ΔR2 and ΔR2*) with increasing cell concentration. The measured ΔR2* were about three to four times greater than the respective ΔR2 for each cell concentration. The intracellular uptake of GNTs was validated with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), indicating an average cellular uptake of 0.44±0.09pg Gd per cell or 1.69×109 Gd3+ ions per cell. Cell proliferation MTS assays demonstrated that the cells were effectively labeled, without cytotoxicity, for GNTs concentrations ≤28μM Gd. In vivo relaxometry of a subcutaneously-injected GNT-labeled cell pellet in a mouse was also demonstrated at 3 T. Finally, the pronounced R2* effect of GNT-labeled cells enabled successful in vitro visualization of labeled cells at 9.4 T.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)93-99
Number of pages7
JournalContrast Media and Molecular Imaging
Volume6
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2011

Keywords

  • Cellular imaging
  • Gadonanotubes
  • Magnetic resonance imaging
  • MRI contrast agent
  • Single-walled carbon nanotubes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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