It is at the nanometer scale where biology, chemistry, and material science converge. With recent progresses in nanotechnology, research in cell biology has gained enormous interest from a growing multidisciplinary community of scientists in academia and industry. Many efforts have been made to discover cures for diseases through advancements in nanobiosensors and microfluidics. In this chapter, we give a general introduction to nanobiosensors and microfluidics technology, present key developments in the field, and illustrate the breadth of microfluidics-based sensing strategies available for cell biology. We also provide protocols for fabricating localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR)-based nanobiosensors, and for integration of LSPR with a microfluidic device. Finally, we highlight applications and challenges associated with the use of nanobiosensing and microfluidics technology. This chapter should provide a solid platform for cell biologists to develop simple microfluidic LSPR chips for routine cell-based assays.