Cardiomyocytes induce endothelial cells to trans-differentiate into cardiac muscle: Implications for myocardium regeneration

G. Condorelli, U. Borello, L. De Angelis, M. Latronico, D. Sirabella, M. Coletta, R. Galli, G. Balconi, A. Follenzi, G. Frati, M. G. Cusella De Angelis, L. Gioglio, S. Amuchastegui, L. Adorini, L. Naldini, A. Vescovi, E. Dejana, G. Cossu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

328 Scopus citations


The concept of tissue-restricted differentiation of postnatal stem cells has been challenged by recent evidence showing pluripotency for hematopoietic, mesenchymal, and neural stem cells. Furthermore, rare but well documented examples exist of already differentiated cells in developing mammals that change fate and trans-differentiate into another cell type. Here, we report that endothelial cells, either freshly isolated from embryonic vessels or established as homogenous cells in culture, differentiate into beating cardiomyocytes and express cardiac markers when cocultured with neonatal rat cardiomyocytes or when injected into postischemic adult mouse heart. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells also differentiate into cardiomyocytes under similar experimental conditions and transiently coexpress von Willebrand factor and sarcomeric myosin. In contrast, neural stem cells, which efficiently differentiate into skeletal muscle, differentiate into cardiomyocytes at a low rate. Fibroblast growth factor 2 and bone morphogenetic protein 4, which activate cardiac differentiation in embryonic cells, do not activate cardiogenesis in endothelial cells or stimulate trans-differentiation in coculture, suggesting that different signaling molecules are responsible for cardiac induction during embryogenesis and in successive periods of development. The fact that endothelial cells can generate cardiomyocytes sheds additional light on the plasticity of endothelial cells during development and opens perspectives for cell autologous replacement therapies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)10733-10738
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number19
StatePublished - Sep 11 2001

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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