Cardiac Arrest in Young Adults With Ischemic Heart Disease in the United States, 2004-2018

Vardhmaan Jain, Abdul Mannan Khan Minhas, Neal S. Kleiman, Hassaan B. Arshad, Yehia Saleh, Summit S. Pandat, Sourbha S. Dani, Sachin S. Goel, Nadeen Faza, Sara Ayaz Butt, Ron Blankstein, Miguel Cainzos-Achirica, Khurram Nasir, Safi U. Khan

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Cardiac arrest (CA) among young adults (<45 y) with ischemic heart disease (IHD) remained understudied. We evaluated the trends in clinical profile, in-hospital mortality, and health care resource utilization in CA-related hospitalizations among young adults with IHD. National Inpatient Sample (2004-2018) was used to identify adults aged 18-45 years. Of 77,359 weighted CA-related hospitalizations (mean age: 39 [0.05] y; 34.3% women), 65% had a myocardial infarction (MI), and 58% had a shockable rhythm. Between 2004 and 2018, CA-related hospitalizations among young adults with IHD increased from 1.8% to 2.4%. Overall, in-hospital mortality was 36.4%, which was higher for women vs men (40.4% vs 34.2%; P < 0.001) and Black vs White adults (43.9% vs 33.3%; P < 0.001). In-hospital mortality increased from 33.5% to 38.1%, with a consistent upward trend in men, White adults, and both MI and non-MI cases. However, in STEMI (40%), in-hospital mortality decreased from 34.6% to 20.2% (p-trend <0.001), while it increased in NSTEMI (14.8%) from 34.3% to 47.5% (p-trend <0.001). Overall mean length of stay (LOS) (7-9 days) and mean inflation-adjusted care cost ($34,431-$44,646) increased over the study duration. CA-related hospitalizations and associated LOS and inflation-adjusted care costs have increased in the last 15 years. In-hospital mortality increased by ∼5% during the study period with a higher mortality in women and among black adults. While increased CA-related hospitalizations may reflect improved pre-hospital care, greater efforts are needed to address improve in-hospital survival in CA among young adults with IHD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number101312
Pages (from-to)101312
JournalCurrent Problems in Cardiology
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2022


  • Adult
  • Female
  • Heart Arrest/epidemiology
  • Hospital Mortality
  • Hospitalization
  • Humans
  • Length of Stay
  • Male
  • Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology
  • Myocardial Ischemia/epidemiology
  • United States/epidemiology
  • Young Adult

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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