Bronchial anthracofibrosis and tuberculosis presenting as a middle lobe syndrome

Jaya Kala, Sandeep Sahay, Ashok Shah

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Scopus citations


Bronchial anthracofibrosis, a clinical entity described less than a decade ago, is characterised by anthracotic pigmentation of the bronchial mucosa with multifocal bronchial lumen narrowing. The right middle lobe is predominantly involved and is frequently associated with tuberculosis. The condition is generally seen in non-smoking elderly ladies with a longstanding history of wood smoke exposure. A 65 year-old lady presented to us with a one-month history of dry cough. The chest radiograph revealed a middle lobe syndrome which was confirmed on computed tomography (CT) scanning. In addition, narrowing of the right middle lobe bronchus was seen. This raised the suspicion of a malignancy. Fibreoptic bronchoscopy revealed anthracotic pigmentation, and bronchial aspirate showed acid fast bacilli. Culture of the aspirate grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The patient responded to standard antituberculous treatment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)51-55
Number of pages5
JournalPrimary Care Respiratory Journal
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 2008


  • Anthracotic pigmentation
  • Bronchial anthracofibrosis
  • Middle lobe syndrome
  • Pulmonary tuberculosis
  • Wood smoke

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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