Brain–computer interfaces as an architectural design tool: Feasibility and usability study

Qi Yang, Jesus G. Cruz-Garza, Saleh Kalantari

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


The applications of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) for ideation scenarios in architectural design have not been widely explored. In this paper, a BCI tool was developed and tested with the goal of enabling architectural designers to manipulate the placement and dimensions of windows in a virtual-reality room through the use of self-selected body movements. Usability tests, followed by semi-structured interviews, were conducted to investigate the accuracy of the BCI, the cognitive loads experienced by users, and their subjective reactions to the tool. The findings revealed that a wide range of online binary accuracy (41%–86%) was observed among different participants when the BCI was utilized. The tool was enthusiastically received by the participants, who described it as a rewarding and creativity-enhancing approach. The main challenges reported were high mental loads and confusing visual feedback, both of which may be addressed by future technological adjustments.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number105011
JournalAutomation in Construction
StatePublished - Oct 2023


  • BCI
  • Brain–computer interface
  • Computer-aided design
  • Design process
  • EEG
  • Virtual reality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Building and Construction


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