Brain-Computer Interfaces in Quadriplegic Patients

Morgan B. Lee, Daniel R. Kramer, Terrance Peng, Michael F. Barbaro, Charles Y. Liu, Spencer Kellis, Brian Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Brain-computer interfaces (BCI) are implantable devices that interface directly with the nervous system. BCI for quadriplegic patients restore function by reading motor intent from the brain and use the signal to control physical, virtual, and native prosthetic effectors. Future closed-loop motor BCI will incorporate sensory feedback to provide patients with an effective and intuitive experience. Development of widely available BCI for patients with neurologic injury will depend on the successes of today's clinical BCI. BCI are an exciting next step in the frontier of neuromodulation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)275-281
Number of pages7
JournalNeurosurgery clinics of North America
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 2019


  • Brain-computer interfaces (BCI)
  • Brain-machine interfaces (BMI)
  • Functional electrical stimulation (FES)
  • Neuromodulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Clinical Neurology


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