Brain adaptations of insulin signaling kinases, GLUT 3, p-BADser155 and nitrotyrosine expression in various hypoglycemic models of mice

Vigneshwaran Pitchaimani, Somasundaram Arumugam, Rajarajan Amirthalingam Thandavarayan, Vengadeshprabhu Karuppagounder, Mst Rejina Afrin, Remya Sreedhar, Meilei Harima, Masahiko Nakamura, Kenichi Watanabe, Satoru Kodama, Kazuya Fujihara, Hirohito Sone

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Aim and objective: Insulin-induced moderate or severe hypoglycemia (MH or SH) impairs cognition and SH causes neuronal death. On the contrary, alternate day fasting (ADF) protects the brain during excitotoxic stress and improves cognitive function. Unlike the scenario in the periphery, insulin and its relationship towards brain glucose uptake and metabolism are considered to be less significant. Yet, the hypoglycemia associated brain metabolism is not clearly understood. The authors broadly investigated the brain metabolism in various hypoglycemic models such as insulin-induced MH, SH, SH with glucose reperfusion, 24 h fasting and ADF in the cortex or hippocampus of C57BL6/J mice. The authors analyzed the protein expression of insulin signaling kinases (plays a key role in neuronal survival and memory), Bcl-2 associated death promoter (p-BADser155) (dephosphorylation inhibits glucokinase activity and reduces glucose or increases ketone body metabolism in the brain), neuronal-specific glucose transporter 3 (GLUT 3) and nitrotyrosine (marker of nitric oxide which is involved in neuronal glucose uptake via GLUT 3) using western blotting analysis. Results: Insulin-induced MH or SH differentially regulated the brain insulin signaling kinases. The expression of p-BADser155 decreased in all hypoglycemic models except the insulin-induced MH in hippocampus. The trended higher GLUT 3 and increased nitrotyrosine expression of insulin-induced SH were restored after glucose reperfusion. The trended higher or increased GLUT 3 and nitrotyrosine expression of ADF were positively correlated with serum beta-hydroxybutyrate levels. Conclusion: During hypoglycemia, it can be suggested that the brain might decrease glucose metabolism via glycolysis or prefer ketone body metabolism (except the insulin-induced MH in hippocampus) by modifying the p-BADser155 expression. In addition to the ketone body metabolism, the brain might adapt to uptake glucose in insulin-induced SH or ADF by modifying the GLUT 3 or nitrotyrosine expression.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number104745
Pages (from-to)104745
JournalNeurochemistry International
StatePublished - Jul 2020


  • Brain metabolism
  • GLUT 3
  • Hypoglycemia
  • Insulin signaling kinases
  • Ketone bodies
  • Seizures

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
  • Cell Biology


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