Botulinum toxin in urology: Evaluation using an evidence-based medicine approach

Christopher P. Smith, George T. Somogyi, Timothy B. Boone

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Clinical reports documenting the beneficial effects of botulinum toxin (BTX) to treat various lower urinary tract disorders of muscle spasticity (e.g. detrusor hyperreflexia, detrusor sphincter dyssynergia) have led to its expanded application in non-neurogenic conditions such as idiopathic detrusor overactivity, detrusor underactivity and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). As greater numbers of investigators report their results utilizing this agent, it becomes more important that clinicians are able to synthesize and describe the findings of current clinical studies in a meaningful way. Evidence-based medicine is a platform on which investigations concerning a particular topic can be evaluated for their levels of scientific evidence, so that rational clinical recommendations can be formulated. This review article applies evidence-based practices to the use of BTX in common urologic conditions. Appreciating the benefits as well as limitations of currently available studies will hopefully drive the development of well-controlled, randomized studies of BTX, particularly in highly prevalent conditions such as idiopathic detrusor overactivity and BPH.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)31-37
Number of pages7
JournalNature Clinical Practice Urology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Nov 1 2004


  • Bladder
  • Botulinum toxin
  • Evidence-based medicine
  • Prostate
  • Urethra

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology
  • Nephrology


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