Botulinum toxin in ophthalmic plastic surgery

M. N. Naik, Charles N.S. Soparkar, R. Murthy, S. G. Honavar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Botulinum toxin chemodenervation has evolved greatly over the past 30 years since its introduction in the 1970s for the management of strabismus. Among ophthalmic plastic surgeons, botulinum toxins are often used as the first line treatment for facial dystonias. These toxins are also efficacious for the temporary management of various other conditions including keratopathies (through so called chemo-tarsorraphy), upper eyelid retraction, orbicularis overaction-induced lower eyelid entropion, gustatory epiphora, Frey's syndrome, and dynamic facial rhytids such as lateral canthal wrinkles (crow's feet), glabellar creases and horizontal forehead lines. This article describes the pharmacology, reconstitution techniques and common current applications of botulinum toxins in ophthalmic plastic surgery.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)279-288
Number of pages10
JournalIndian Journal of Ophthalmology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 2005


  • Botulinum toxin
  • Chemodenervation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology


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